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Table of contents

  1. What are clozes?
  2. Test and answer context
  3. Active and inactive clozes
  4. Summary

What are clozes?

According to Wikipedia:

A cloze test (also cloze deletion test) is an exercise, test, or assessment consisting of a portion of language with certain items, words, or signs removed (cloze text), where the participant is asked to replace the missing language item.

Test and answer context

The rendering of the cloze needs to context-sensitive. Depending on the context cloze is rendered, it needs to be rendered differently:

  1. as a test, it can be rendered as an ellipsis, or a hint. The hint might be text provided by the user, or simply the answer, but processed in a specific way, e.g. obscured, or blanked out.
  2. as the answer, or reveal, it needs to show what was hidden.

For flashcards, test will be synonmymous with the front, answer with the back.

Active and inactive clozes

In a flashcard, you usually want to test each piece of knowledge individually. This is also called the minimum information principle. In Anki, this is facilitated in the form of cards.

The capital of Portugal is [[c1::Lisbon]]. Its area is [[c2::92kmĀ²]].

Using the above template, we could create two different cards, both testing one piece of knowledge on the note. This introduces the notion of active clozes, compared to inactive ones.

In Anki, on a card Cloze 1, the active cloze would be c1, whereas c2 is inactive, and vice versa. Within Closet we can be more flexibile, but generally we will adhere to this convention.


Altogether, we can think of a cloze as text which can be rendered in 4 different ways:

  • test and active
  • test and inactive
  • answer and active
  • answer and inactive

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